* Hired the engineering consulting firm of Carter & Sloope to apply for grants extending city water and sewer to a site north of Highway 130 and another for infrastructure improvements at a site to be determined.
The anti-lock braking system (ABS) is the most important active safety system for passenger cars. Unfortunately, the literature is not really precise about its description, stability and performance. This research improves a five-phase hybrid ABS control algorithm based on wheel deceleration [W. Pasillas-Lépine, Hybrid modeling and limit cycle analysis for a class of five-phase anti-lock brake algorithms, Veh. Syst. Dyn. 44 (2006), pp. 173-188] and validates it on a tyre-in-the-loop laboratory facility. Five relevant effects are modelled so that the simulation matches the reality: oscillations in measurements, wheel acceleration reconstruction, brake pressure dynamics, brake efficiency changes and tyre relaxation. The time delays in measurement and actuation have been identified as the main difficulty for the initial algorithm to work in practice. Three methods are proposed in order to deal with these delays. It is verified that the ABS limit cycles encircle the optimal braking point, without assuming any tyre parameter being a priori known. The ABS algorithm is compared with the commercial algorithm developed by Bosch.
Water, when constrained between two graphene sheets and under ultrahigh pressure, can manifest dramatic differences from its bulk counterparts such as the van der Waals pressure induced water-to-ice transformation, known as the metastability limit of two-dimensional (2D) liquid. Here, we present result of a new crystalline structure of bilayer ice with the AB-stacking order, observed from molecular dynamics simulations of constrained water. This AB-stacked bilayer ice (BL-ABI) is transformed from the puckered monolayer square-like ice (pMSI) under higher lateral pressure in the graphene nanocapillary at ambient temperature. BL-ABI is a proton-ordered ice with square-like pattern. The transition from pMSI to BL-ABI is through crystal-to-amorphous-to-crystal pathway with notable hysteresis-loop in the potential energy during the compression/decompression process, reflecting the compression/tensile limit of the 2D monolayer/bilayer ice. In a superheating process, the BL-ABI transforms into the AB-stacked bilayer amorphous ice with the square-like pattern.
The paper presents an anti-lock braking system (ABS) control logic based on the measurement of the longitudinal forces at the hub bearings. The availability of force information allows to design a logic that does not rely on the estimation of the tyre-road friction coefficient, since it continuously tries to exploit the maximum longitudinal tyre force. The logic is designed by means of computer simulation and then tested on a specific hardware in the loop test bench: the experimental results confirm that measured wheel force can lead to a significant improvement of the ABS performances in terms of stopping distance also in the presence of road with variable friction coefficient.
La investigacion---accion que se llevo a cabo en la sala de clases tenia como punto de partida las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios para luego examinar sus implicaciones en el proceso de aprendizaje de las Ciencias Biologicas. ¿Que se supone que hagan las creencias en relacion con el aprendizaje? ¿En que consiste incorporar este aspecto a la practica educativa universitaria? Utilizando el modelo de Kemmis y McTaggart (1987) la investigacion-accion se planteo como un proceso dinamico en cuatro momentos en espiral constituidos por la planificacion, la accion, la observacion y la reflexion. Cada una de las fases tuvo una intencion retrospectiva y prospectiva formando una espiral de autorreflexion del conocimiento y la accion. Se llevaron a cabo audio grabaciones en clases y analisis de documentos. Ademas, la profesora-investigadora hizo un portafolio para reflexionar sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tienen los estudiantes y las creencias del aprendizaje que tiene la profesora y sobre como la comprension de estos elementos ayudo a mejorar su practica educativa a traves del tiempo. Los resultados obtenidos apuntan a que las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tiene el grupo de estudiantes son diversas. Ellos si creen que la ciencia tiene una cultura la cual describieron como: complicada y desconocida que evoluciona constantemente, que es un conjunto de metodos, que es altamente tecnologica, que resuelve problemas de salud, ayuda a interpretar la realidad del mundo que los rodea y su origen y que existen unas intersecciones entre la ciencia y el poder. Sobre las creencias del proceso de aprendizaje de la profesora-investigadora, estas senalan que el modelaje de actores, la vision de la academia que tiene ella asi como la participacion y negociacion entre todos los involucrados en el proceso educativo, son factores que inciden en el proceso de aprendizaje.
Abstract Motivation: Loops are often vital for protein function, however, their irregular structures make them difficult to model accurately. Current loop modelling algorithms can mostly be divided into two categories: knowledge-based, where databases of fragments are searched to find suitable conformations and ab initio, where conformations are generated computationally. Existing knowledge-based methods only use fragments that are the same length as the target, even though loops of slightly different lengths may adopt similar conformations. Here, we present a novel method, Sphinx, which combines ab initio techniques with the potential extra structural information contained within loops of a different length to improve structure prediction. Results: We show that Sphinx is able to generate high-accuracy predictions and decoy sets enriched with near-native loop conformations, performing better than the ab initio algorithm on which it is based. In addition, it is able to provide predictions for every target, unlike some knowledge-based methods. Sphinx can be used successfully for the difficult problem of antibody H3 prediction, outperforming RosettaAntibody, one of the leading H3-specific ab initio methods, both in accuracy and speed. Availability and Implementation: Sphinx is available at Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:28453681
Complement inhibitors expressed on tumor cells provide an evasion mechanism against mAb therapy and may modulate the development of an acquired antitumor immune response. Here we investigate a strategy to amplify mAb-targeted complement activation on a tumor cell, independent of a requirement to target and block complement inhibitor expression or function, which is difficult to achieve in vivo. We constructed a murine fusion protein, CR2Fc, and demonstrated that the protein targets to C3 activation products deposited on a tumor cell by a specific mAb, and amplifies mAb-dependent complement activation and tumor cell lysis in vitro. In syngeneic models of metastatic lymphoma (EL4) and melanoma (B16), CR2Fc significantly enhanced the outcome of mAb therapy. Subsequent studies using the EL4 model with various genetically modified mice and macrophage-depleted mice revealed that CR2Fc enhanced the therapeutic effect of mAb therapy via both macrophage-dependent FcγR-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and by direct complement-mediated lysis. Complement activation products can also modulate adaptive immunity, but we found no evidence that either mAb or CR2Fc treatment had any effect on an antitumor humoral or cellular immune response. CR2Fc represents a potential adjuvant treatment to increase the effectiveness of mAb therapy of cancer. PMID:22442351
Aim of Study: To describe a simplified ab-interno cow-hitch suture fixation technique for repositioning decentered posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL). Materials and Methods: Two cases are presented with the surgical correction of decentered and subluxated IOL. Ab-interno scleral suture fixation technique with hitch-cow knot in the eye was performed with a ciliary sulcus guide instrument and 1 year follow-up was completed. Results: Both of the patients had well centered lenses postoperatively. Corrected distant and near visual acuities of the patients were improved. There was no significant postoperative complication. In the follow-up period of 1 year, no evidence of suture erosion was found. Conclusions: Ab-interno scleral suture loop fixation with hitch-cow knot in the eye was effective in repositioning decentered or subluxated PC IOLs with excellent postoperative centered lenses and visual outcomes. PMID:27050346 2b1af7f3a8